There are several excellent sources for Skeptics. This posting provides a source for Solar Research Papers. The amount of Sun based research may surprise you, because the Warmers continue to tell us that the Sun is not important.
Some of the research is readily available and some is behind paywalls. But I suspect that just looking at the available research will occupy you for some long time. The source is Club du Soleil Click here to see this source.
There are several additional resources that I will post soon.
Posted in AGW, CO2, Earth Magnetic Poles, Environment, IPCC, Radiation, Skeptic resources, Solar Cycle 24, Solar Cycle 25, Solar Flux, Sun, sun and climate, Sunspots
The April 2015 Solar Cycle 24 Sunspot number rose somewhat in April, but the forecast is for a continued decline in activity. The 2015 monthly Sunspot counts were: January = 67.0, February=44.8, March=38.4 and April=54.4. The daily Sunspot counts seesawed, but definitely with a downward trend, Ri(black). This can be seen be examining Rsouth (green). While Rnorth has been reasonably quiet for a year or so, Rsouth has been the major contributor to the total number since late 2013.
A study was published in 2012, “Sudden transitions and grand variations in the solar dynamo, past and future” by Cornelis DeJager and Silvia Duhan . The authors attempt to predict whether Solar Cycle 25 will transition to a “Grand Minimum” or “Regular “ Episode. They believe the Sun is transitioning from a “Grand Maximum” to one or the other aforementioned Episodes. This study is being used because their prediction was based upon knowing the Solar Cycle 24’s maximum Sunspot number which we now have.
First a look at the “Episodes” that the authors have placed the Solar Cycles from 1620 to the present.
The diagram shows the sunspot numbers plotted against time. The three Grand Episodes are marked by their different colors. They are separated by vertical black lines.
Cycle 24 solar activity looked liked it had peaked somewhere around March of 2011 at about 68. But it hadn’t. The smoothed International Sunspot (SS) number is currently around 82 around as shown by the dashed blue line on this chart:
More detail can be seen on the following chart where the activity in November is up from October. Both SS and solar flux (F10.7 cm) peaked at about 170 in November.
Solar Cycle 24 is still much less active than Solar Cycle 23 as can be seen in the chart below:
The green line is the predicted path of the smoothed International SS number. This time the turn down in solar activity may actually be the “maximum” for Solar Cycle 24.
An El Nino is happening now. It should continue into next year. Early indications were that it would be very weak, but it has picked up some strength. This event is likely to have an effect and may even break the run of more than 18-year pause in global temperatures. Solar Cycle 24’s low solar activity might offset the El Nino with the “pause’ continuing. Nobody knows.
Probably the most comprehensive discussions of the what and where-fore of an El Nino are by Bob Tisdale postings. Clicking here will direct you to his postings.
Since late last year, Solar Cycle 24 has picked up activity as it goes through a double peak maximum. I doubt that is an official term but it does describe what has been going on. It was generally though that the peak International Smoothed Sunspot number for Cycle 24 was going to be about 66. But the recent activity will result in a smoothed peak number of 81 or there about. (Click on charts for clarity.)
This chart of approximately the last 12 months, shows that F-10.7cm solar flux and Sunspot numbers are closely aligned, both being good proxies for solar activity.
Solar Cycle 24 at November mid-month still is showing relatively high activity. The Sunspots are up and the F10.7cm solar flux is as well. The Solen Chart below was updated on 15 November. (Click on Chart to enlarge.)
The green line is not the official smoothed 6 month lagging number that is used to describe the Cycles. But it currently is showing that the increase in solar activity in the month of October is still underway in November. Even so, this activity is well below its recent predecessors.
The 30 day smoothed International Sunspot number for October 2013 was 78.9. The Sun was more active as indicated by Sunspots and F10.7cm radio flux in October than any time since the middle of July this year. The chart, by Solen, below shows this activity. (Click on chart to enlarge.)
The chart shows that the NOAA Sunspot number and the F10.7 cm flux are trending downward at month-end, indicating the likelihood that the 30-day smoothed Sunspot number will begin dropping. A bit of prospective is that while the October solar activity was up, Cycle 24 is still much having much lower activity relative to the 3 preceding Solar Cycles.