The US Geological Survey (USGS) cited estimates of the methane (CH4) trapped in global methane hydrate (aka methane clathrate, Fire Ice, etc.) deposits are 3600 times more than the 2016 US consumption of natural gas. The 2016 US consumption of natural gas (natural gas is mostly methane), according to Donn Dears, was 27.5×10^12 cubic feet.
The estimate of trapped gas in the deposits ranges from 10^17 to 5×10^18 cubic feet*. Those are estimates and further those estimates probably include some amount of methane hydrate that will never be economical to produce. Even so, oil reserves that were supposed to have peaked many years ago, keep growing because of new technology. eg. Fracking. So, who knows?
*(For the non-engineer or scientist that might not know how much that is, it can be restated as 1 followed by 17 zeros to 5 followed by 18 zeros cubic feet of natural gas.)
Where are the hydrate deposits found?
Methane hydrate deposits are found (or predicted) to be associated with continental margins and onshore permafrost areas. The chart below global areas where deposits are to be found.
First, let’s discuss where the methane originates. Methane is largely produced by micro-organisms that act on the plankton that has accumulated deep in the ocean floor sediments. In the upper layers of the sediment where the temperature and pressure are suitable, the rising CH4 bubbles are captured in very cold water and the hydrate is formed. While methane produced biogenically is considered the most widespread source, there is another source. Thermogenic methane is produced where high pressures and high temperatures cook organic matter.
The picture below shows in color the concentration of air pollution in North America. The lower US seems to have three notable pollution sources according to the color scale shown in the lower left of the photo. Roughly locating these three sources would be in California in the Western US, Chicago area in the Great Lakes region, and Baltimore to Boston along the I 95 corridor.
Now for a look at Asia and the middle East.
According to these maps, the above one shows where most of the air pollution originates.
The following from the Science website is some information about these pictures. While the text is from November last year, the picture map shows the situation in real time. These are for July 16, 2017.
By Dennis NormileNov. 28, 2016 , 3:15 PM
China’s air is notoriously toxic: Each year, it contributes to the premature deaths of some 1.6 million people. Concerned about how such pollution was affecting his family, Beijing-based data scientist Yann Boquillod founded AirVisual Earth, an online air pollution map that uses data from satellites and more than 8000 monitoring stations to display global air pollution in real time. The AirVisual Earth interactive maps prevailing wind patterns and shows color-coded concentrations of PM2.5—airborne particulate matter less than 2.5 microns in diameter that can penetrate deep into the lungs. Users can zoom in, tilt, and spin the globe for better viewing. The air pollution visualization was crafted “so people really understand how bad it is,” says Boquillod, who hopes an informed citizenry will pressure governments and communities to clear the air. AirVisual also delivers 3-day air pollution forecasts for 6000 cities to smartphones, and it recently began selling low-cost monitors people can use to track indoor and outdoor air pollution. “People want to share that data,” Boquillod says.
The pictures are screen captures. You will have to go to the Science site link here to move around the globe.
I am not a fan of the 2.5micron particles stuff. Another study suggest that there is no evidence for it being considered a vehicle for killing massive numbers of people. See Junk Science links to see why I say that. This is a good map for chasing black carbon and other aerosols.
The Manhattan Contrarian posted “Looks Like Global Action On “Climate Change” Is Dead by Frances Menton. There is not much in the posting that I have not already covered. However, there are two things that do standout that I want to pass on. Menton’s posting is relative to the members of the G 20, that have just reaffirmed their support for the Paris Agreement in the Summary statement at the end of the G 20* meeting. The US did not join in the reaffirmation.
Menton notes that Russia’s intended reduction is based upon their CO2 emissions in 1990 before they collapse in 1991 of the Soviet Union.
“Then they closed down all that inefficient Soviet industry. According to a graph at Climate Action Tracker here, by 2000 their emissions were down by almost 40% from the 1990 level, and they have only crept up a little from there since.”
That was their ploy back in the days of the Kyoto Pact, too.
Posted in AGW, China, Climate Alarmism, CO2, Coal, Environment, EU, IPCC, Kyoto, Paris Agreement, President Trump, Renewable Energy, United Nations
A posting by sundance titled “Angela Merkel Reflects Fear And Loathing Amid EU Elites…”. I believe provides an important perspective on the President Trump’s America First Strategy. I have focused on Energy and the Paris
Agreement, but Trump’s strategy, as laid out by the author, sundance, is more that those two items. It really is a plan to make the US economically strong again.
President Trump has put a jaw-dropping U.S. energy platform solidly into place. You can learn more about them HERE and HERE. The announcements last week are tectonic in consequence though seemingly lost amid the chafe of media reporting over twitter spats.
Everything President Trump’s team does is connected to a bigger, much bigger, picture than most people are paying attention to. However, those who control the levers of multinational power are paying very close attention.
At it’s core and central elements ‘America-First’ is about prosperity and national security through the utilization of leveraged economic power. For four decades, as he built out his empire of holdings, every-single-day at every-single-opportunity, Donald Trump voiced vociferous frustration that politicians were allowing the U.S. to be controlled, lessened, weakened and robbed by multinational economic interests.
Posted in AGW, carbon tax, China, Climate Alarmism, Domestic Energy, Fracking/Shale Gas, Government Regulations, Oil and Gas Exploration, OPEC, Paris Agreement, President Trump
The Global Warming Policy Forum (GWPF) posted “Forget Paris—1600 New Coal Power Plants Built Around The World.” The GWPF provides the chart below that focuses on Europe, Asia and Africa using data from Coal Exit.com:
As you can see, China already has 2,363 coal based plants and expects to have 1,171more. It comes as no surprise that China and India are major users of coal based power currently and they will be the major builders in the future. No other country is even close. It is illustrative to see that European nations are forecast to be increasing coal based capacity, not reducing it as their none too subtle “holier than thou” attitude would suggest.
Posted in AGW, Alternative Energy, China, Climate Alarmism, Climate Models, CO2, Coal, Electricity from Coal, Global Temperatures, Government Regulations, Paris Agreement, President Trump, solar cells, Windpower
The ignorance shown by the media regarding the Paris Agreement leads me to wonder is it incompetence of just out-right lies. The primary argument often is, quoting the editorial in the local newspaper, “By breaking ranks with nearly 200 nations, the United States joins only Syria (which is riven by civil war) and Nicaragua ….” More on this paragraph below, but first about the 200 nations. According to the Paris Agreement’s Green Climate Fund, the majority of the almost 200 nations are to be given money from this fund. As of May 2017, 41 nations have contributed or have pledged money to this fund. Reviewing the data, we find that of the 41 nations, 22 of them are in for $10 million or less, 6 are in for $100 million or less, 7 are in for $500 million or less, 1 is in for $750million or less and 5 are in for more than $1billion with the US the major player at $3 billion. Beginning 2020, the Green Climate Fund will require that the donor nations provide a total of $100 billion per year! So what has been given so far is chump change.
Well, what do the other 160 nations have to lose by not joining? Free money is what they will lose if they don’t sign up. In fact, only about 13 countries are contributing any serious money. The nearly “200 nations” is a bogus issue.
Posted in AGW, China, Climate Alarmism, Climate Models, CO2, Coal, Fracking/Shale Gas, Global Temperatures, IPCC, Paris Agreement, President Trump, United Nations
The website CO2 Coalition has a post titled “Climate Change: A summary of the Science”. It one of the best summaries I have come across lately. It is fairly long, so I could do my usual and summarize it, but there is virtually nothing in it that I would want to skip over. So, I will not deprive the reader. I will put it in, in its entirety. I hope that my posting yesterday will fill in any blanks you may have otherwise had.
News 26 Feb, 2017
Climate Change: A Summary of the Science
The climate change science is settled, but not how the climate alarmists want you to think.
Posted in AGW, chemistry, China, Climate Alarmism, Climate Models, CO2, crop yields, Environment, fossil fuels, Global Temperatures, Media Bias, Ocean Acidification, photosynthesis, Sea Level, Solar Activity, Storms/hurricanes, Sun, sun and climate, The Pause